Hidden Curriculum and Educational Stress



Studies on the quality of education and the factors affecting the motivation of the students have increased in recent years. Hidden curriculum and education stress perception are concepts that are dealt with in theoretical frameworks designed to reveal more unions in the educational literature. In this context, the examination of the relationship between the two concepts in a sample of university students in young adulthood will be in place to understand the risk factors and supporting factors of the relationship between these two structures. Relation between hidden curriculum and educational stress has been examined in this study. Research about this study was completed with 546 university students. Educational stress scale and hidden curriculum scale have been applied to participants. Educational stress scale was developed by Sun et al. (2011). Hidden curriculum scale was developed by Akbulut and Arslan (2016). The relation between hidden curriculum and educational stress has been examined by correlation and path analysis. It was found in the study that hidden curriculum and educational stress were significantly related to each other. According to correlation analysis, statistically meaningful relation was founded between educational stress and sub dimensions of the hidden curriculum; content, learning and teaching process and evaluation. Using SEM, all the parameters of models can be tested simultaneously in one step. The specifications on the model were for direct paths from educational stress to hidden curriculum. The conclusion that student’s perceived hidden curriculum affects perceived educational stress has been reached as a result of the present study. Hidden curriculum have significant effects on educational stress. Results are discussed within the extent of the related literature.


Hidden curriculum; educational stress; university students

Full Text:

PDF (Türkçe)


Abdulselam, A. (2008). Saudi student’s perspectives on their teacher’s transmission of negative messages : A hidden curriculum. Doctora Thesis, University of Kansas

Adıay, S. (2011). Başarı düzeyleri farkli ilköğretim 7. sinif ortamlarinin örtük pro-graminin sinif iklimi boyutunda incelenmesi. Yüsek Lisans Tezi. Sakarya Üniversitesi Eğitim Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Sakarya

Awino, J. O. & Agolla, J. E. (2008). A quest for sustainable quality assurance meas-urement for universities: Case of study of the university of botswana. Educa-tional Research Review, 3(6), 213-218. ISSN- 1990-3839.

Beauchamp, L. and Parsons, J. (1985). The hidden curriculum of student teacher evaluation. ERIC Digest (ED 261 983).

Bhansali, R. & Trivedi, K. (2008). Is academic anxiety gender specific? A compara-tive study. Journal of Social Sciences, 17(1), 1-3.

Balamurugan, M. & Kumaran, D. (2008). Development and validation of students’s stres scale. Online Submission, 7(1), 35-42

Bower, E., H. (2009). End-of-Life care training in medical school: An examination of medical students’ knowledge, attitudes, preparedness to provide care, and the hidden curriculum. Phd Dissertation, West Wirginia

Britz, J. & E. Pappas, 2010. Sources and outlet of stress among university students: Correlations between stress and unhealthy habits. Undergraduate Research Journal for the Human Science.

Callender C. & Wilkinson D (2012). Futuretrack: part-time higher education stu-dents – the benefits of part-time higher education after three years of study HECSU. Manchester. 93 pp

Chen, H., Gilson, C., Ran, M. & Wong,Y. (2009). Stress among shanghai university students: the need for social work support. Journal of Social Work, 9(3), 323-344.

Clemmitt, M. (2007). Students under stress. CQ(Congressional Quarterly) Re-searcher, 17(25), 577-600.

Cohen, W. & Levinthal, D. (1990). Absorptive capacity : A new perspective learning and innovation. Administrative Science Quarterly , 35(1), 128-152

Conner, J., Galloway, M. & Pope, D. (2009). Success with less stress. Educational Leadership, 67(4), 54-58.

Copeland, E. P. (2008). Stress in children and adolescents: Tips for parents. Nation-al Association of School Psychologists Communiqué, 37(3).

Cribb, A., & Bignold, S. (1999).Towards the reflexive medical school: the hidden curriculum and medical education research. Studies in Higher Education, 24(1), 195-209.

D’Angelo, J. F. (1981). The hidden curriculum in a suburban catholic high school. Abstract: Dissertation For The University of Pennsylvania.

Ehman, L. & Gillespie, J. (1974). Political life in the hidden curriculum: Does it make a difference? ERIC Document ED 099 255 (Washington, D.C. :U.S. Department Of Health, Education and Welfare, 1974), 3.

Fallin, K., Coleman, M. and Wallinga, C.(2001). Helping children cope with stress in the classroom setting. Childhood Education, 78(1), 17-24.

Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal, and coping. New York: Springer

Kohn, J.P. & Frazer, G.H. (1986). An academic stress scale: Identification and rated importance of academic stressors. Psychological Reports, 59,415-426.

Gaikwad, P. (2010). Curriculum Pedagogy and Values: Revealing The Invisible. http://www.aias.edu/academics/sgs/info/v7n2/gaikwad.pdf.

Giroux, H. (2001). Theory and resistance in education: Towards A pedagogy for the opposition. Westport, CT: Bergin and Garvey

Gordon, D. (1983). Rules and effectiveness of the hidden curriculum. Journal of Philosophy of Education, 77( 2), 207-218.

Verma, S. & Gupta, J. (1990). Some aspects of high academic stress and symptoms. Journal of Personality and Clinical Studies, 6, 7-12.

Haralambos, M. (1991). Sociology: Themes and perspectives. London, DC: Collins Education

Hawk D,. Yannis, R. and Takala, M (2001). On the opening of society: Towards a more open and flexible educational system, systems research and behavioral science. Special Issue on Designing Educational Systems for The Twenty-First Century, 18 (4), 291-306

Halstead, J. M & Taylor, M. J (2000b). Learning and teaching about values: A re-view of recent research. Cambridge Journal of Education , 30(2), 169-202

Hines, A., R. (2013). The theatrical ties that bind: An examination of the hidden curriculum of theatre education. Doctoral Dissertation. Arizona State Uni-versity

Hubbard, B. (2010). Manifestations of hidden curriculum in a community college online opticinary program: An ecological approach. Doctoral Dissertation. University Of South Florida

Hu,L. & Bentler,M.P. (1999) Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 6:1, 1-55.

Ito, G. (2008). Examining the hidden curriculum in water safety education for afri-can americans. Doctoral Dissertation. Northern Illinois University

Jackson, P. (1968). Life in classrooms. New York, NY: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

Jacobson, L. A. (2008). The gendered process of hidden curriculum and cultural capital within two teacher preperation programs. Arizona State University

Jerald, C. B. (2006). School culture: Hidden curriculum. Washington : The Center For Comprehensive School Reform and Improvement.

Killby,K.(2009). Coping with stress. Retrieved From http://Www.Slideshare.Net/Kkillby/Coping-With-Stress- 1932711.

Lavoie, R. M. (2006). It’s so much work to be your friend: Mastering the hidden curriculum of school. Retreived From http://Www.Schwablearning.Org/Articles.Asp?R=996

Leblanc, C. & Heyworth, J. (2007). Emergency physicians: "Burned Out" Or "Fired Up"? CJEM, 9, 121-123.

Margolis, E. & Romero, M. (1998). The Functioning of the hidden curriculum in graduate sociology departments: The department is very male, very white, very old, and very conservative. Harvard Educational Review, 68, 1-32.

Mariani, M.P.R. (1999). DLM-Forum follow -up: proposals on training of adminis-trators and archivists. Paper presented at the DLM-Forum on Electronic Records of the European Communities, held on 18-19 October, Brussels.

Misra, R. & Mckean, M. (2000). College student’s stress and it’s relation to their anxiety, time management and leisure satisfaction. American Journal of Health Studies, 16 (1), 4.

Oswalt, S. B. & Riddock, C. (2007). What to do about being overwhelmed: Gradu-ate students, stress and university service. The College Student Affair Jour-nal, 27(1), Texas: University of Texas At San Antanio

Parsons, J. & Beauchamp, L. (1985) The hidden curriculum of student teaching evaluations. ERIC Digest (ED 261 983).

Persaud, I. And Persaud, N. (2016).The relationship between socio-demograpics and stress levels, stresors and coping mechanisms among undergraduate students at a university in barbados. International Journal of Higher Education, 5(1), 11-27

Posner, G. (1995). Analyzing the curriculum. (2nd Ed.). New York: Mcgraw-Hill.

Ramirez, A. (2009). State and government role in education. (E. Provenzo editor), Sage Publications, Encyclopedia of the Social and Cultural Foundations of Ed.

Rhorer, D. A. (2002). A hidden curriculum of racism for welfare women in a ged preparation program: A critical ethnography. Unpublished Doctor Of Edu-cation Dissertation, University Of Houston

Saleh, K. L. (2009). Managing to manage workplace stress. The psychology founda-tion of cana-da.RetrievedFromHttp://Www.Psychologyfoundation.Org/Pdf/Publications/Managing_To_Manage.Pdftomanagestress

Schneider, M., (2002). Do school facilities affect academic outcomes? Washington, DC: National Clearing House For Educational Facilities. Retrieved From Http://Www.Edfacilities.Org/Pubs/Outcomes.Pdf

Sockett, H. (1992). The moral aspects of the curriculum. In P. W.Jackson (Ed ), Handbook of Research on Curriculum, 543-569, New York: Simon and Schuster

Suldo, S.M., Friedrich, A.A., White, T.N., Farmer, J., Minch, D., & Michalowski, J. (2009). Teacher support and adolescents’ subjective well-being: A mixed-methods investigation. School Psychology Review, 38(1), 67-85.

Sun, Jiandong, Dunne, Michael P., Hou, Xiang-Yu & Xu, Aigiang (2011). Educa-tional stress scale for adolescents : development, validity, and reliability with Chinese students. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 29(6), pp. 534-546.

Vallance, E. (1983). Hiding the hidden curriculum: an interpretation of the language of justification in nineteenth-century educational reform. The Hidden Curriculum and Moral Education. Ed. Giroux, Henry and David Purpel. Berkeley, California: Mccutchan Publishing. Corporation, 9-27.

Waller, W.W. (1932) The sociology of teaching. New York: Wiley

Wideman, C. (1973). The hidden curriculum: Conceptual and emprical issues sur-rounding non-academic aspects of schooling. Madison: University of Wis-consin

Wren, D. J. (1999). School culture: Exploring the hidden curriculum. Adolescencei, 34 (135), 593 - 596.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24106/kefdergi.398650


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License  
 Kastamonu Eğitim'de yayınlanan tüm içerik ve makaleler "Creative Commons Alıntı 4.0 Uluslararası Lisansı" ile lisanslanmıştır.