Change in the Level of Justification in Problem Solving Over Time



Students’ actions in a mathematical context contain some sort of proving in the forms of justification, explanation, verification, etc. Each form has levels in terms of the quality that adds to mathematical understanding of students. In this study, 58 teacher candidates’ problem solving processes were analyzed across time in terms of the level of justification. The key findings from this study were as the use of external justifications decreased over time, that of internal increased especially for the first five weeks and the use of schematic justifications was fluctuated. The findings suggest that through teacher feedback and structured writing with prompted questions, students can develop an awareness of rigorous mathematical justifications over time.


justification, problem solving, writing, mathematics education

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