The Investigation of Self-Regulation Skills of Preschoolers According to Their Attachment Styles to Their Mothers and Maternal Parenting Behaviors*

Dilan BAYINDIR, Ozana URAL

Abstract


The self-regulations skills are one of the most obvious indicators of academic achievement and social competence. For this reason, it is important to determine the variables that affect the development of these skills.  The aim of this research is to examine whether the level of self-regulation skills of 60-72 months old preschool children differ according to their attachment styles to their mothers and to investigate the relationship between parenting behaviors of their mothers and self-regulation skills of children. Survey method was used in the study. The sample consists of a total of 172 children, 84 (%49) of them were boys and 88 (%51) of them were girls, who attend different preschools in Turkey. The Self-Regulation Skills Scale, Doll Family Story Completion Test and Parenting Questionnaire were used as data collection tools. The results indicate that self-regulation skill levels of children who are securely attached to their mothers are higher than unsecurely attached children. In addition, it was found that self-regulation skills of the children decrease as the mothers expect more obedience. The findings clearly stress the importance of parenting quality as direct and indirect indicator of self-regulation skills.


Keywords


self-regulation, attachment style, parenting behaviors, presc-hool period

Full Text:

PDF (Türkçe)

References


Altan, Ö. (2006). The effects of maternal socialization and temperament on children’s emotion regulation. Master thesis, University of Koç.

Bakermans-Kranenburg, M., M. van Ijzendoorn, S. Madigan, G. Moran, D. Pederson, & D. Benoit. (2006). Unresolved states of mind, anomalous parental behavior, and disorganized attachment; A review and meta analysis of a transmission gap. Attachment & Human Development, 8, 89-111.

Baydar, N., Küntay, A., Gökçen, F., Yağmurlu, B. & Cemalcılar, Z. (2010). Türkiye’de erken çocukluk gelişim ekolojileri araştırması [Early childhood ecologies in Turkey project]. Accessed 31 September 2014. http://www.manevisosyalhizmet.com/wpcontent/uploads/2014/01/erkencocuklukgelisimekolojileriarastirmasi.pdf.

Bayındır, D. & O. Ural. (2016). Öz Düzenleme Becerileri Ölçeği’nin geliştirilmesi [Development of the Self-Regulation Skills Scale]. Uluslararası Online Eğitim Bilimleri Dergisi, 8, 119-132.

Bernier, A., S.M. Carlson. & N. Whipple. (2010). From external regulation to self regulation: Early parenting precursors of young children’s executive functions. Child Development, 81, 326-339.

Blair, C. (2002). School Readiness. American Psychologist, 57, 111-127.

Blair, C. & A. Diamond. (2008). Biological processes in prevention and intervention: The promotion of self-regulation as a means of preventing school failure. Development and Psychopathology, 20, 899–911.

Bretherton, I. (1992). The origins of attachment theory: John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth. Developmental Psychology, 28, 759-775.

Bryce, D., D. Whitebread, & D. Szüer. (2015). The relationship among executive functions, metacognitive skills and educational achievement in 5 and 7 year old children. Metacognition Learning, 10, 181-198.

Bowly, J. (1969). Attachment and Loss, New York: Basic Books.

Carlson, S. M. & T.S. Wang. (2007). Inhibitory control and emotion regulation in preschool children. Cognitive Development, 22, 489-510.

Chen, B. (2012). The associations between self-reported mother-child attachment and

social initiative and withdrawal in Chinese school-aged children. The journal of

Genetic Psychology: Research and Theory on Human Development, 173, 279-301.

Denham, S. A., S. M. Renwick. & R. W. Holt. (1991). Working and playing together: Prediction of preschool social-emotional competence from mother child interaction. Child Development, 62, 242-249.

Derryberry, D. & M. A. Reed. (1996). Regulatory processes and the development of cognitive representations. Development and Psychopathology, 8, 215−234.

Dubois-Comtois, K., C. Cyr, & E. Moss. (2011). Attachment behavior and

mother–child conversations as predictors of attachment representation in middle childhood: A longitudinal study. Attachment and Human Development, 13, 335–357.

Eisenberg, N., R. Haugen, T. L. Spinrad, C. Hofer, L. Chassin, & Q. Zhou. (2010). Relations of temperament to maladjustment and ego-resiliency in at-risk children. Social Development, 19, 577–600.

Eisenberg, N., Q. Zhou, T. L. Spinrad, C. Valiente, R. A. Fabes, & J. Liew. (2005). Relations among positive parenting, children’s effortful control, and externalizing problems: A three-wave longitudinal study. Child Development, 76, 1055–1071.

Eisenberg, N., T. L. Spinrad, R. A. Fabes, M. Reiser, A. Cumberland, S. A. Shepard, C. Valiente, S. H. Losoya, I. K. Guthrie, & M. Thompson. (2004). The relations of effortful control and impulsivity to children’s resiliency and adjustment. Child Development, 75, 25–46.

Fox, N. A. & S. D. Calkins. (2003). The development of self-control of emotion: Intrinsic and extrinsic influences. Motivation and Emotion, 27, 7-26.

Gilliom, M., D. S. Shaw, J. E. Beck, M. A. Schonberg, & J. L. Lukon. (2002). Anger regulation in disadvantaged preschool boys: Strategies, antecedents, and the development of self-control. Developmental Psychology, 38, 222-235.

Glaser, D. (2000). Child abuse and neglect and the brain: A review. Journal of Child

Psychology and Psychiatry, 41, 97–116.

Granot, D. & O. Mayseless. (2001). Attachment security and adjustment to school in

middle childhood. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 25, 530–541.

Greenberg, M. T. (2006). Promoting resilience in children and youth: Preventive interventions and their interface with neuroscience. Annals New YorkAcademy of Sciences, 1094, 139–150.

Grusec, J. E. and J. J. Goodnow. (1994). Impact of parental discipline methods on the child’s internalization of values: A reconceptualization of current points of view. Developmental Psychology, 30, 4-19.

Görgü, E. (2015). Okula devam eden 5-6 yaş grubu çocukların bağlanma biçimleri ve sosyal davranışları ile annelerin bağlanma biçimi ve kişilik özellikleri arasındaki ilişkinin incelenmesi [A study on the relationship between attachment styles and social behaviors of school children aged 5-6, and the attachment styles and personality traits of their mothers]. PhD Dissertation, Marmara University.

Güner, A. (2011). Okul öncesi çocuklar ve ebeveynlerinin bağlanma güvenlikleri ile

çocuk yetiştirme tutumları arasındaki ilişkilerin incelenmesi [The investigation of relations among parents’ and preschool children’s attachment security and child rearing attitudes]. Master thesis, İstanbul Unversity.

Güner Algan, A. & G. Şendil. (2013). “Okul öncesi çocuklar ve ebeveynlerinin bağlanma güvenlikleri ile çocuk yetiştirme tutumları arasındaki ilişkiler [The relations among parents’ and preschool children’s attachment security and child rearing attitudes]. Psikoloji Çalışmaları Dergisi, 33, 55-68.

Harris, R.C., J. B. Robinson, F. Chang, & B. M. Burns. (2007). Characterizing preschool children’s attention regulation in parent-child interactions: The role of effortful control and motivation. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 28, 25–39.

Isabella, R. A. (1993). Origins of attachment: Maternal interactive behavior across the first year. Child Development, 64, 605–621.

İlaslan, Ö. (2009). Çocukların bağlanma davranışlarının özlük nitelikler ve anne bağlanma stillerine göre incelenmesi [Examining childrens’ attachment behaviors according to personal qualities and mothers’ attachment styles]. PhD dissertation, Selçuk University.

Kağıtçıbaşı, Ç. (2010). Benlik, Aile ve İnsan Gelişimi: Kültürel Psikoloji [Identity, Family and Human Development: Cultural Psychology]. İstanbul: Koç Üniversitesi Yayınları.

Kliewer, W., M. D. Fearnow. & P. A. Miller. (1996). Coping socialization in middle childhood: Tests of maternal and paternal influences. Child Development, 67, 2339-2357.

Kochanska, G., K. T. Murray, & E. T. Harlan. (2000). Effortful control in early childhood: Continuity and change, antecedents, and implications for social development. Developmental Psychology, 36, 220–232.

Kochanska, G., K. T. Murray, T. Y. Jacques, A. L. Koenig, & K. A. Vandegeest. (1996). Inhibitory control in young children and its role in emerging internalization. Child Development, 67, 490–507.

Kopp, C. (1982). Antecedents of self-regulation: A developmental perspective. Developmental Psychology, 18, 199–214.

Lengua, L. J., I. N. Sandler, S. G. West, S. A. Wolchik, & P. J. Curran. (1999). Emotionality and self-regulation, threat appraisal, and coping in children of divorce. Development and Psychopathology, 11, 15−37.

Malakoff, M. E., M. Underhill, & E. Zigler. (1998). Influence of inner-city environment and Head Start experience on effectance motivation. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 68, 630−638.

Mangelsdorf, S.C., J. Shapiro, & D. Marzolf. (1995). Developmental and temperemental differences in emotion regulation in infancy. Child Development, 66, 1817-1828.

Mattanah, J. F., M. W. Pratt, P. A. Cowan, & C. P. Cowan.( 2005). Authoritative parenting, parental scaffolding of long-division mathematics, and children’s academic competence in fourth grade. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 26, 85–106.

Metin, İ. (2010). The effects of dispositional anger, effortful control and maternal responsiveness on turkish preschoolers’ emotion regulation. Master thesis, Koç University.

Meins, E., C. Fernyhough, & J. Russell. (1998). Security of attachment as a predictor of mentalising abilities: A longitudinal study. Social Development, 7, 1–24.

Moilanen, K. L., D. S. Shaw, T. J. Dishion, F. Gardner, & M. Wilson. (2010). Longitudinal growth and predictors of inhibitory control in early childhood. Social Development 19, 326–347.

Morris, A. S., J. S. Silk, L. Steinberg, S. S. Myers, & L. R. Robinson. (2007). The role of the family context in the development of emotion regulation. Social Development, 16, 361-388.

Moss, E. & D. St-Laurent. (2001). Attachment at school age and academic performance. Developmental Psychology, 37, 863–874.

O’Connor, E. & K. McCartney. (2007). Attachment and cognitive skills: An investigation of mediating mechanisms. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 28, 458–476.

Olson, S. L., J. E. Bates, J. M. Sandy, & E. M. Schilling. (2002). Early developmental precursors of impulsive and inattentive behavior: From infancy to middle childhood. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 43, 435−447.

Pearson, K. M. (2013). Attachment and Self Regulation in Preschool Age Children. Master thesis, University of Rhode Island.

Pino Pasternak, D. & D. Whitebread. (2010). The role of parenting in children’s self regulated learning. Educational Research Review, 5, 220-242.

Pratt, M. W., D. Green, J. MacVicar, & M. Bountrogianni. (1992). The mathematical parent: Parental scaffolding, parenting style, and learning outcomes in long-division mathematics homework. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 13, 17–34.

Pratt, M. W., P. Kerig, P. A. Cowan, & C. P. Cowan. (1988). Mothers and fathers teaching 3 year-olds: Authoritative parenting and adult scaffolding of young children’s learning. Developmental Psychology, 24, 832–839.

Ponitz, C. E. C., M. M. McClelland, A. M. Jewkes, C. M. Connor, C. L. Farris, & F. J. Morrison. (2008). Touch your toes! Developing a direct measure of behavioral regulation in early childhood. Early childhood Research Quarterly, 23, 141–158.

Power, T. G. (2004). Stress and coping in childhood: The parents’ role. Parenting: Science and Practice, 4, 271–317.

Ramani, G. B., C. A. Brownell, & S. B. Campbell. (2010). Positive and negative peer interaction in 3-and 4-year-olds in relation to regulation and dysregulation. The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 171, 218-250.

Raval, V., Goldberg, S., Atkinson, L., Benoit, D., Myhal, N., Poulton, L. & Zwiers, M.

(2001). Maternal Attachment, Maternal Responsiveness and Infant Attachment.

Infant Behavior & Development, 24, 281–304.

Rothbart, M. K., S. A. Ahadi, & D. E. Evans. (2000). Temperament and personality: Origins and outcomes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 122−135.

Schraw, G., K. Crippen, & K. Hartley. (2006). Promoting self-regulation in science education: metacognition as part of a broader perspective on learning. Research in Science Education, 36, 111-139.

Schunk, D.H. (2001). Social cognitive theory and self-regulated learning. In Self-regulated learning and academic achievement: Theoretical perspectives, edited by Barry J. Zimmerman ve Dale H. Schunk, (2.edi, p.125-151). Manwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Schunk, D. H. & B. J. Zimmerman. (1997). Social origins of self-regulatory competence. Educational Psychologist, 32, 195-208.

Siegel, D. J. (2001). Toward an interpersonal neurobiology of the developing mind: Attachment relationships, “Mindsight” and neural integration. Infant Mental Health Journal, 22, 67-94.

Simonds, J., J. E. Kieras, M. R. Rueda, & M. K. Rothbart.(2007). Effortful control, executive attention, and emotional regulation in 7-10-year-old children. Cognitive Development, 22, 474–488.

Sözügeçer, Z. (2011). Çocuklardaki davranış problemlerinin, bağlanma stilleri, aile

işlevleri ve anne kabul algıları açısından incelenmesi [Examining the behavior problems in children in terms of attachment security, family functions and perceptions of acceptance/rejection of the mother]. Master thesis, İstanbul University.

Sturge-Apple, M. L., P. T. Davies, M. J. Martin, D. Cicchetti, & R. F. Hentges. (2012). An examination of the impact of harsh parenting contexts on children’s adaptation within an evolutionary framework. Developmental Psychology, 48, 791–805.

Szewczyk-Sokolowski, M., K. K. Bost, & A. B. Wainwright. (2005). Attachment, temperament, and preschool children’s peer acceptance. Social Development, 14, 379-397.

Taylor, Z.E., N. Eisenberg, T. L. Spinrad, & K. F. Widaman. (2013). Longitudinal relations of intrusive parenting and effortful control to ego-resiliency during early childhood. Child Development, 84, 1145-1151.

Turner, L. A. & B. Johnson. (2003). A model of mastery motivation for at-risk preschoolers. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95, 495−505.

Uluç, S. & F. Öktem. (2009). Okul Öncesi Çocuklarda Güvenli Yer Senaryolarının Değerlendirilmesi [The investigation of secure base scripts of preschool children]. Türk Psikoloji Dergisi, 24, 69-83.

Uluç, S. & F. Öktem. (2010). Okul öncesi çocuklarda güvenli yer senaryoları ve kişilerarası beklentiler arasındaki ilişkiler [Relations between secure base scripts and ınterpersonal expectation of preschool children]. Çocuk ve Gençlik Ruh Sağlığı Dergisi, 17, 139-147.

Ural, O., G. Güven, T. Sezer, K. Efe-Azkeskin, & E. Yılmaz. (2015). Okul öncesi dönemdeki çocukların bağlanma biçimleri ile sosyal yetkinlik ve duygu düzenleme becerileri arasındaki ilişkinin incelenmesi [The investigation of the relation between attachment styles, social competence and emotion regulation skills of preschool children]. Hacettepe Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Fakültesi Dergisi, 1, 589-598.

van IJzendoorn, M., J. Dijkstra, & A. G. Bus. (1995). Attachment, intelligence, and

language: A meta-analysis. Social Development, 4, 115–128.

Vaough, B., B. Egeland, A. Srouge, & E. Waters. (1979). Individual differences in infant-mother attachment at twelve and eighteen months: Stability and change in families under stres. Child Development, 50, 971-975.

Wertsch, J. V., G. D. McNamee, J. B. McLane, & N. A. Budwig. (1980). The adult–child dyad as a problem-solving system. Child Development, 51, 1215–1221.

West, K.K., L.M. Brittany, & K. A. Kerns. (2013). Mother–child attachment and cognitive performance in middle childhood: An examination of mediating mechanisms. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 28, 259–270.

Whitebread, D., P. Coltman, D. P. Pasternak, C. Sangster, V. Grau, S. Bingham, S., O. Almeqdad, & D. Demetriou. (2009). The development of two observational tools for assessing metacognition and self-regulated learning in young children. Metacognition Learning, 4, 63–85.

Wood, D., J. Bruner, & G. Ross. (1976). The role of tutoring in problem solving. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 17, 89–100.

Zhou, Q., N. Eisenberg, Y. Wang, & M. Reiser. (2004). Chinese children’s effortful control and dispositional anger/frustration: Relations to parenting styles and children’s social functioning. Developmental Psychology, 40, 352-366.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.24106/kefdergi.3456

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


indexed by TR-DİZİN, DOAJ, SOBİAD

 


Creative Commons License  
 Kastamonu Eğitim'de yayınlanan tüm içerik ve makaleler "Creative Commons Alıntı 4.0 Uluslararası Lisansı" ile lisanslanmıştır.