Ahmet AKIN, Recep UYSAL, Ümran AKIN


This study investigated the validity and reliability of the Turkish Version of the Ostracism Experience Scale for Adolescents (Gilman, Carter-Sowell, DeWall, Adams, & Carboni, 2013). The sample of study consists of 306 students. Results of confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated that the elevenitems loaded on two factors (ignored and excluded) and the two-dimensional model was well fit (x²=80.64, df=41, RMSEA=.056, NFI=.96, NNFI=.97, CFI=.98, IFI=.98, RFI=.95, GFI=.95, SRMR=.048). Factor loadings ranged from .71 to .88 and the corrected item-total correlations of OES-A ranged from .51 to .70. Internal consistency reliability coefficients were .93 for ignored subscale, .90 for excluded subscale, and .89 for overall scale.  These results demonstrate that this scale is a valid and reliable instrument.


Ostracism; validity; reliability; confirmatory factor analysis

Full Text:

PDF (Türkçe)


Armstrong, J. G., & Roth, D. M. (1989). Attachment and separation difficulties: A preliminary investigation. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 8(2), 141-155.

Baumeister, R. F., & Leary, M. R. (1995). The need to belong: Desire for interpersonal attachments as a fundamental human motivation. Psychological Bulletin, 117, 497-529.

Cairns, R. B., Cairns, B. D., Neckerman, H. J., & Ferguson, L. L. (1989). Growth and aggression: I. Childhood to early adolescence. Developmental Psychology, 25, 320-330.

Coplan, R. J., Prakash, K., O’Neil, K., & Armer, M. (2004). Do you “want” to play? Distinguishing between conflicted-shyness and social disinterest in early childhood. Developmental Psychology, 40, 244–258.

Diarof, A. (2010). Ostracism and aggression: Influence of increasing provocation by pers on aggressive behaviour after acute experience of ostracism. Yayımlanmamış Yüksek Lisans Tezi. Universitat Trier, Trier.

Dixon, R. (2007). Ostracism: One of the many causes of bullying in groups? Journal of School Violence, 6, 3–26.

Eisenberger, N. I. (2006). Identifying the neural correlates underlying social pain: implications for developmental processes. Human Development, 49, 273–93.

Gazelle, H., & Ladd, G. W. (2003). Anxious solitude and peer exclusion: A diathesis–stress model of internalizing trajectories in childhood. Child Development, 74, 257–278.

Gilman, R., Carter-Sowell A., DeWall, N., Adams, R., & Carboni I. (2013). Validation of the Ostracism Experiences Scale for adolescents. Psychological Assessment, 25(2), 319-330.

Hu, L. T., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structural analy¬sis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6, 1-55.

Joreskog, K. G., & Sorbom, D. (1996). LISREL 8 reference guide. Lincolnwood, IL: Scien¬tific Software International.

Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K., Garner, W., Speicher, C., Penn, G. M., Holliday, J., & Glaser, R. (1984). Psychosocial modifiers of immunocompetence in medical students. Psychosomatic Medicine, 46(1), 7-14.

Kurzban, R., & Leary, M. R. (2001). Evolutionary origins of stigmatization: the functions of social exclusion. Psychological Bulletin, 127(2), 187-208.

Laursen, B., & Hafen, C. A. (2010). Future directions in the study of close relationships: Conflict is bad (except when it’s not). Social Development, 19, 858–872.

Leary, M. R., Kowalski, R. M., Smith, L., & Phillips, S. (2003). Teasing, rejection, and violence: Case studies of the school shootings. Aggressive Behavior, 29, 202–214.

Omay, U. (2007). Tüccar sınıfın Protestan hareketi desteklemesinin Maslow’un, ihtiyaçlar hiyerarşisi yaklaşımı açısından değerlendirilmesi. Sosyal Siyaset Konferansları Dergisi, 52, 231-243.

Özdamar, K. (2004). Paket programlar ile istatistik veri analizi 1. Eskişehir: Kaan Kitabevi.

Sebastian, C., Viding, E., Williams, K. D., & Blakemore, S.-J. (2010). Social brain development and the affective consequences of ostracism in adolescence. Brain and Cognition, 72, 134–145.

Sipahi, B. Yurtkoru, E. S., & Çinko, M. (2008). Sosyal bilimlerde SPSS’le veri analizi. İstan¬bul: Beta Basım Yayım Dağıtım.

Smith, A., & Williams, K. D. (2004). R U there? Ostracism by cell phone text messages. Group dynamics: Theory, research, and practice, 8, 291–301

Stout, J. G.(2009). When he doesn't mean you: Gender-exclusive language as a form of subtle ostracism. Yayımlanmamış Yüksek Lisans Tezi. University of Massachusetts - Amherst, Massachusetts.

Şimşek, M.Ş., Akgemici, T., & Çelik, A. (2001). Davranış bilimlerine giriş ve örgütlerde davranış.Ankara: Nobel Yayın Dağıtım.

Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2007). Using multivariate statistics. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

Williams, K. D. (2007). Ostracism: The kiss of social death. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 1, 236–247.

Williams, K. D. (2009). Ostracism: A temporal need-threat model. In M. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (s. 279–314). New York, NY: Academic Press.

Williams, K. D., & Nida, S. A. (2011). Ostracism: Consequences and coping. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 20, 71–75.

Williams, K. D., Cheung, C. K. T., & Choi, W. (2000). CyberOstracism: Effects of being ignored over the Internet. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 79, 748–762.

Witvliet, M., Brendgen, M., Van Lier, P. A. C., Koot, H. M., & Vitaro, F. (2010). Early adolescent depressive symptoms: Prediction from clique isolation, loneliness, and perceived social acceptance. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 38, 1045–1056.

Zadro, L., Williams, K.,& Richardson, R. (2004). How low can you go? Ostracism by a computer is sufficient to lower self-reported levels of belonging, control, self-esteem, and meaningful existence. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 40(4), 560-567.


  • There are currently no refbacks.



Creative Commons License  
 Kastamonu Eğitim'de yayınlanan tüm içerik ve makaleler "Creative Commons Alıntı 4.0 Uluslararası Lisansı" ile lisanslanmıştır.